Opportunities for Action: An Evolving Plan for the Future of the Lake Champlain Basin

Skip navigation

Reducing Phosphorus Pollution

About This Chapter

The Goal

Reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Champlain to promote a healthy and diverse ecosystem and provide for sustainable human use and enjoyment of the Lake.


As in all living systems, the balance of nutrients within the Lake Champlain ecosystem is critically important in maintaining the condition of the Lake. If the concentrations of nutrients are significantly altered, the ecosystem will become unbalanced and noticeable changes in Lake condition will result. Like most lakes in the northeast, the concentration of phosphorus in Lake Champlain is a key factor in determining the quality of the ecosystem as humans have come to know and enjoy it.

Phosphorus is typically known as the limiting nutrient in a lake ecosystem, meaning that algal growth is limited by the amount of phosphorus that is available. Algae require other nutrients as well, but phosphorus is commonly the one nutrient that is most needed. When phosphorus is available in excessive amounts, more algal growth than usual may result, including unsightly algae blooms. These changes in plant growth, in turn, can affect many other aspects of the Lake ecosystem, including the amount of oxygen in the water, the types of fish we catch, the smell, the appearance, and potability of the water itself.

Residents and visitors to the Basin can take many actions to reduce the phosphorus load carried by streams to Lake Champlain. The Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP), together with its governmental partners, has identified a number of specific actions that are most needed to protect the lake. These actions are provided in the tables at the end of this chapter, accompanied by the intended schedule for their implementation.

Back to Top

Sources of Phosphorus

VYCC and CVTA installed erosion control measures

Phosphorus is most commonly found attached to soil particles and may be released into the water column when soils are disturbed. Phosphorus typically arrives in Lake Champlain bound to sediments carried down rivers and streams or as dissolved phosphorus that has been released from the sediments into the water column. For purposes of this plan, phosphorus pollution is grouped into two general categories. The most obvious category is point source pollution, in which pollutants can be directly attributed to a tangible source in a particular place – a wastewater treatment plant, for example. Point source pollution accounts for about 5 percent of the total load reaching Lake Champlain. The second category, while less obvious, is currently the more important problem in the Lake Champlain watershed, about 95 percent of the total phosphorus load (Smeltzer et al. 2009), and is called nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is associated with discharges of stormwater and snowmelt and is produced across a broader geographical region. Examples include soil erosion and runoff from agricultural fields; stormwater washing off roads, lawns, and parking lots; and unstable streams and stream bank erosion from modified water flows. Because the exact origin of nonpoint source phosphorus cannot easily be identified, it is much harder to control. Management actions to address nonpoint source phosphorus pollution are addressed in this chapter.

Recent research in the Lake Champlain Basin shows that, acre for acre, developed land contributes up to four times more nonpoint source phosphorus than average agricultural lands and seven times more than forests (Troy et al. 2007). However, far more acres of Basin land are in agriculture and forests than in urban settlements; it is now clear that substantial reductions in nonpoint phosphorus runoff are required in both agricultural and developed lands in order to meet our targets for a clean Lake Champlain. Developed lands contributed about 46 percent of the phosphorus runoff Basin-wide in 2001, and agricultural lands contributed about 38 percent. These proportions, however, vary greatly among the various sub-watersheds. For example, in 2001 developed land was the largest contributor to phosphorus in Burlington Bay, Vermont (about 99 percent) and Cumberland Bay, New York (about 57 percent). But agricultural land contributes the majority of phosphorus load to the Missisquoi Bay, Vermont and Québec (about 64 percent) (Troy et al. 2007).

Back to Top

The Lake Champlain Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load

Total phosphorus load to Lake Champlain

The Lake Champlain phosphorus total maximum daily load (TMDL) provides the fundamental phosphorus management framework for the Lake. The TMDL defines the maximum amount of phosphorus loading that the Lake can receive and still achieve the in-Lake phosphorus concentration criteria established for each segment of the Lake. Because the TMDL for phosphorus is exceeded in numerous parts of Lake Champlain, a TMDL plan has been developed to reduce in-Lake phosphorus concentrations to the maximum allowable levels. This TMDL Plan identifies the total phosphorus-loading capacity among the various sources of phosphorus and includes implementation plans for Vermont and New York to achieve the necessary phosphorus reductions over time, to reduce phosphorus concentrations to the TMDL level in the Lake. The TMDL establishes individual waste load allocations for each wastewater treatment facility in Vermont and New York and defines phosphorus allocations for agricultural, developed, and forested land in each sub-watershed draining to the lake. The Lake Champlain Phosphorus TMDL was developed jointly by Vermont and New York under the US Clean Water Act, and was approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 2002. Vermont issued a revised TMDL Implementation Plan in 2010.

Back to Top

Adaptive Management

The LCBP and partners support a formal adaptive management approach to reducing phosphorus loadings into Lake Champlain. This approach is not new to the LCBP, but with the development of a formal adaptive management plan for the Basin, resource managers will be able to more accurately assess the effect of different programs in reducing phosphorus pollution in the Lake. Adaptive management is a structured approach to making decisions about managing the Lake that will incorporate both experience and careful projections about the effectiveness of management policies based on the best science and professional judgment available. A well-designed adaptive management plan assesses specific ecological indicators that inform managers about how the ecosystem has responded to the management actions. Management actions are continually evaluated to determine how effective they are at reducing phosphorus loading. Managers can then modify actions to further improve phosphorus reduction or shift support to other practices that may be more effective at reducing phosphorus pollution. A more detailed description of the overall adaptive management process for Lake Champlain can be found in Chapter 2, A Strategy for Implementing the Plan.

Back to Top

Threats: Urban and Rural

Most urban stormwater is not treated before entering a waterway

Numerous and diverse threats challenge water quality in Lake Champlain. Threats are attributable to human actions – our actions – on the landscape and encompass a wide variety of activities, such as: failure to manage and/or treat stormwater runoff from existing or new areas of developed land (residential, commercial, and industrial), poor management of cropland and pasture, loss of forests and wetlands, development encroachment on stream banks and shorelines, road construction and maintenance practices, and inadequate wastewater treatment.

Similar to the diversity of threats to water quality in Lake Champlain, there is a wide range of strategies that can be employed to reduce phosphorus pollution. Examples include:

  • implement a suite of voluntary and regulatory programs at the state/provincial and municipal levels to address stormwater runoff;
  • provide technical and financial assistance to farmers to support implementation of recommended best management practices;
  • use regulation, zoning, and incentives to prevent conflicts between infrastructure and streams and rivers;
  • provide financial and technical assistance to support forest stewardship, wetland protection, and restoration efforts;
  • improve the ability of financial assistance programs, including the state revolving fund, to target phosphorus reduction projects; and
  • implement a suite of best management practices for roadways that specifically address drainage, maintenance, and erosion control.

These strategies involve one or more of the following policy tools:

  • regulatory requirements that provide specific steps that must be taken to control pollution and reduce impacts;
  • financial incentives that link funding eligibility to specific actions or use subsidies to control pollution and reduce impacts; and
  • technical assistance that supports sharing information on water-quality impacts and suggests techniques to reduce impacts.

Back to Top

Phosphorus Reduction Efforts in Missisquoi Bay

Missisquoi Bay algal boom, 2004

Blue-green algal blooms have become a forefront issue in Missisquoi Bay since the 1990s. Severe algal blooms in Missisquoi Bay have inhibited recreational activities during the busy summer months in several recent years and have impacted access to the bay in both Québec and Vermont. The impacts of these algal blooms are of binational concern, leading to the creation of a formal agreement between Québec and Vermont, commonly known as the 60/40 agreement, in which the State of Vermont has agreed to assume 60 percent of the responsibility for reducing phosphorus loading to the bay, and Québec will assume 40 percent of the responsibility. The International Joint Commission (IJC), an organization established by the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty between the federal governments of the United States and Canada, also provides support for reducing phosphorus loads.

The LCBP and its partners have made numerous efforts to reduce phosphorus loads into Missisquoi Bay in recent years. The Rock River watershed, a sub-watershed of Missisquoi Bay, has been targeted as a short-term focus area for expanded outreach and implementation efforts. Significant resources have been allocated to research and implementation of new management programs to minimize the impacts of different land uses in this watershed. A recent LCBP-funded project by researchers at the University of Vermont developed an accounting system to track nonpoint sources of phosphorus in this watershed. A new project targeting the Rock River watershed will provide incentives to farmers to initiate best management practices on their farms to reduce pollution due to runoff. Resource managers in the Province of Québec recently completed a successful “Green Buffers” project, which encouraged farmers to plant perennial crops within nine meters (30 feet) of the water’s edge along the riparian corridors of their fields. These crops provide a buffer to waterways adjacent to agricultural fields during the growing season while also providing a source of income for the farmer.

Current LCBP-funded projects range from identifying specific sources of phosphorus within the Missisquoi Bay Basin, examining the impacts of sedimentation due to stream bank erosion, evaluating the effects of phosphorus loading from the sediments within Missisquoi Bay itself, and implementing small best management practices on farms within the basin. LCBP is also working with its partners to acquire light detection and ranging (LiDAR) coverage for a majority of the Missisquoi Basin. LiDAR is a remote sensing technology that uses pulses of light to determine characteristics of the earth’s surface, such as topography and land cover, and provides very high-resolution imagery. LiDAR imagery thus enables more accurate elevation models and land cover classifications than previously supported by satellite imagery. The resulting data can delineate the micro-topography of an area, such as water and pollution transport networks through ditches and gullies, and reveal more detailed land cover, such as narrow riparian buffers between rivers and agricultural fields. Many other projects, current and proposed, are identified within the lists of priority actions below.

Knowledge gained by resource managers from each of the Missisquoi Bay projects can be applied to many other sub-watersheds of the Lake, especially those dominated by agricultural land use. The LCBP will ensure that resource managers have the necessary tools and information to successfully apply knowledge gained by this work to reduce phosphorus pollution around the Lake Champlain Basin. For example, the phosphorus critical source analysis project will result in a list of landscape characteristics and management practices that combine to produce high phosphorus loads into our waterways. This project also aims to compare the results generated by complex modeling tools to those obtained by simple GIS analysis to determine if analytical efficiencies are possible and can be affordably applied throughout the Basin.

Back to Top


Results of recent USGS trends analysis

Major efforts have been undertaken in the last two decades to maintain good water-quality conditions in several segments of Lake Champlain and around the Basin as a whole. Burlington Bay, Shelburne Bay, and Cumberland Bay, three of Lake Champlain’s most heavily developed lakefront areas, remained below phosphorus concentration targets in most recent years. Water quality in the Main Lake, Isle LaMotte, and Otter Creek lake segments has changed minimally through the last two decades despite sustained conversion from agricultural and forest lands to developed lands. Phosphorus loads from wastewater treatment plants around the Basin have been reduced by nearly 80 percent since 1990. Phosphorus loads from wastewater treatment plants contributed approximately 25 percent of the total Basin-wide load in 1990-1991; in 2007-2008, that number was estimated at only 5 percent. Despite increased land use conversion for development within the Basin, tributary phosphorus loads and flow-weighted mean inflow concentrations to most regions of the Lake were stable or decreasing from 1991 to 2008 (Smeltzer et al. 2009). This assessment is reflected in a recent study by the US Geological Survey (USGS) using new statistical methods illustrating that trends in phosphorus concentrations adjusted for stream flow have decreased since 1999 in fifteen of eighteen tributaries studied, suggesting that a positive response to watershed management efforts may be underway (Medalie and Hirsch 2010).

Significant challenges in achieving water-quality goals remain. For example, Lake phosphorus concentrations remained above the TMDL targets during all or nearly all years in five Lake segments. Levels were below the TMDL targets during nearly all years in two lake segments, and the remaining six lake segments had borderline conditions in which the mean phosphorus concentrations varied above and below their targets. Four Lake segments had significant increasing linear trends in phosphorus concentrations over the 1990-2008 time period; however, no Lake segment exhibited a significant decreasing phosphorus trend. Additionally, phosphorus loading rates remained above the total loading capacities established in the Lake Champlain Phosphorus TMDL in all but two Lake segments (Smeltzer et al. 2009).

Back to Top

Introduction to the Phosphorus Objectives, Priority Actions, and Tasks

The new framework of Opportunities for Action (OFA) identifies broad objectives designed to reduce phosphorus concentrations in Lake Champlain, more focused priority actions to meet those objectives, and specific tasks agreed to by OFA signatory agencies. The priority actions have been developed to collectively address the objectives that have been identified for this chapter, all of which are ultimately working toward the goal of reducing phosphorus concentrations in Lake Champlain to promote a healthy and diverse ecosystem and to provide for sustainable human use and enjoyment of the Lake. All LCBP partners are active in watershed management programs within the Basin, implementing many projects that are not described in the task lists below, and are working to achieve the objectives identified in this chapter. The tasks included with each priority action below are projects identified by the LCBP partners who have signed OFA as a comprehensive management plan for their organizations and jurisdictions to achieve within the time frames provided and to the extent that funding is available.

Back to Top

The Implementation Role of the Public

A basin resident uses phosphorus-free lawn fertilizer

While it is essential for governments, agencies, and departments at all levels to work toward the common goal of phosphorus load reduction, it is no less important for citizens in every part of the Lake Champlain Basin to participate effectively at home and in their workplaces. The challenge of phosphorus load reduction is a responsibility of residents and visitors alike, and success can be achieved only through effective community-wide participation. For this reason, many citizen-oriented tasks directed at phosphorus load reduction are described in the Informing and Involving the Public chapter of this plan.

Back to Top

Role of the LCBP in Achieving these Objectives

The LCBP, with the help of the jurisdictional and public partners, will aggregate all phosphorus-loading data available for the Basin into a report that will provide minimal interpretation. This data report will provide policymakers in each jurisdiction access to the nutrient management criteria and an updated understanding of the phosphorus-loading pressures within the Basin.

  • LCBP will use this data report to:
    • Inform the decision-making process.
    • Assess the full period of record.
    • Conduct a trend analysis using more recent data where possible:
      1. develop a mechanism to assess the current status of all wastewater treatment plants in the TMDL with respect to phosphorus loading,
      2. develop a mechanism to assess the current status of point and nonpoint source phosphorus loads using data from the Long Term Monitoring Program and other sources
      3. track changes in land use throughout the Basin on a regular basis.
  • LCBP will assemble information from all partners to develop this data report and provide the report to the Steering Committee annually.
  • LCBP will prioritize implementation grant proposals from nongovernmental organizations and municipalities that focus on phosphorus reduction.
  • LCBP will continue to review proposals to the US Army Corps of Engineers under Section 542 of the Water Resources Development Act that focus on reductions to phosphorus and sediment loading.
  • LCBP will assist in cross-boundary transfer of management practices found to be successful in other regions and applicable to the Basin.
  • LCBP will support tasks identified by the LCBP Steering Committee to address immediate needs for phosphorus reduction through grants and contracts.
  • LCBP will help track the success of TMDL implementation activities on both sides of the Lake
  • LCBP will continue to assess phosphorus concentrations and loads by Lake segments.

Back to Top


Medalie, L. and R. M. Hirsch. 2010. Trends in phosphorus concentrations and loads in Lake Champlain tributaries 1990-2008: An evaluation using new statistical methods. Presented at the Lake Champlain Research Conference, 7 June, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.

Smeltzer, E., F. Dunlap and M. Simoneau. 2009. Lake Champlain Phosphorus Concentrations and Loading Rates, 1990-2008. Lake Champlain Basin Program Technical Report # 57.

Troy, A., D. Wang, D. Capen, J. O’Neil-Dunne and S. MacFaden. 2007. Updating the Lake Champlain Basin Land Use Data to Improve Prediction of Phosphorus Loading. Lake Champlain Basin Program Technical Report # 54.

Back to Top

Chapter Objectives

  • Attain phosphorus-loading targets and sustain necessary reductions for Lake segment watersheds that are consistent with the TMDL and the phosphorus reduction agreement between Vermont and Québec for the Missisquoi Bay Watershed.
  • Attain the in-Lake phosphorus criteria specified in the TMDL because this is the most probable remedy to reducing algal blooms in Lake Champlain.
  • Identify actions and funding levels needed to attain TMDL loading targets by 2016 and beyond.

Associated Actions / Tasks

Click Expand Icon Next to each Action to see the associated Tasks

  • Completed Completed Task
  • Active Active Task
  • Inactive Inactive Task

Expand 4.1) Reduce the phosphorus load that is being generated by agricultural land uses, including farmsteads, cropland, and pasture lands in the basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Support voluntary implementation of BMPs or NMPs through annual small grants programs. View Task Comments 4.1.1 LCBP 07-01-13 Active
Make recommendations for improved consistency and new approaches in agricultural management practices based on annual assessments of the current management techniques. View Task Comments 4.1.2 LCBP 07-01-13 Active
Research the contribution to phosphorus loading by agricultural tiling and ditching. View Task Comments 4.1.3 LCBP 06-20-13 Active
Track the agricultural phosphorus reductions achieved across the jurisdictions in support of an overall mass balance for phosphorus within the basin by 2014. View Task Comments 4.1.4 LCBP 07-01-13 Active
Support efforts to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Champlain on an ongoing basis by providing information on relevant phosphorus reductions efforts taking place elsewhere in the country; sharing fact sheets, results of pilot projects, and other national efforts to reduce phosphorus loads; and sharing various assessment, modeling, and management tools as they are developed (e.g., Chesapeake Bay Program and other aquatic systems). View Task Comments 4.1.5 USEPA 11-14-11 Active
Work with Lake Champlain stakeholders to develop pilot projects for reducing phosphorus. Share the results of this work with other aquatic systems throughout the country. View Task Comments 4.1.6 USEPA Inactive
Ensure that New York and Vermont implement the CAFO program in accordance with the new regulations promulgated in November 2008. View Task Comments 4.1.7 USEPA 03-13-14 Active
Farmsteads – Provide financial and technical assistance and regulatory oversight needed to support construction and maintenance of proper waste containment/treatment structures and exclusions from clean water.
Make the Lake Champlain watershed a priority watershed for enforcement activities, targeting 5 EPA inspections per year, and work with Vermont and New York to ensure that MFOs, LFOs, and/or CAFOs are routinely inspected. View Task Comments 4.1.8 USEPA 04-14-14 Active
Ensure EQIP contract implementation by making shorter term contracts available by 2010 and continually improving the accuracy of practice cost estimates. View Task Comments 4.1.9 USDA-NRCS 12-16-13 Completed
Implement new USDA-NRCS standard on silage leachate as part of CNMP development and implementation by 2010. View Task Comments 4.1.10 USDA-NRCS 08-15-14 Completed
Expand the role of the O&M agreements for EQIP practices and work with partners to determine the feasibility of an O&M incentive payment for farms implementing structural practices by 2011 in order to raise awareness of the need to properly operate and maintain installed systems. View Task Comments 4.1.11 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Completed
Continue to provide technical and financial assistance to 50 livestock farms annually to address barnyard water management, manure management, milk house waste, and silage leachate issues to reduce phosphorus inputs from agricultural sources by 2015. View Task Comments 4.1.12 USDA-NRCS 12-16-13 Active
Ensure that, through inspections, enforcement actions, and penalties, all (28) CAFOs have CNMPs prepared and updated, at least annually, by a certified planner (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.13 New York 05-20-14 Active
Ensure that all (8) large CAFOs continue to properly operate and maintain the structural BMPs identified in their CNMPs (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). As part of this effort each large CAFO will be comprehensively inspected at least once per year by NYSDEC and evaluated with respect to implementation of its CNMP. [Note: as of 8/2009, all 8 large CAFOs have constructed their structural BMPs.] View Task Comments 4.1.14 New York 05-20-14 Active
Ensure that all (20) medium CAFOs complete construction of the structural BMPs identified in their CNMPs by June 30, 2014 (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). As part of this effort each medium CAFO will be inspected at least once every 3 years by NYSDEC and evaluated with respect to implementation of its CNMP. Follow-up on all water-quality-related complaints involving small (non-CAFO) farms. View Task Comments 4.1.15 New York 05-20-14 Active
Continue to encourage livestock and crop farms to develop and advance conservation plans developed through the AEM program. Partnerships between public and private agricultural service providers will advance 75 plans by 2012. View Task Comments 4.1.16 New York Inactive
The AEM partnership will evaluate 75 livestock and crop farms with implemented conservation plans to further advance operation, maintenance, and performance. View Task Comments 4.1.17 New York Inactive
Maintain the inspection program of all farms in the Basin (831 total farms visited since 2003) to ensure compliance with regulation. View Task Comments 4.1.18 Québec 05-21-14 Active
Ensure compliance regarding proper manure storage for farms (mainly small farms under 50 cows) on solid manure annually. NOTE: All farms with more than 50 cows and on liquid manure must have proper waste structures required by regulation. View Task Comments 4.1.19 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Ensure that all (118) MFO farms in the Basin have the necessary structures in the production area needed to prevent direct farmstead discharges by 2013 (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.20 Vermont 09-18-12 Active
Annually ensure that all (11) LFO farms in the Basin continue to operate and maintain the existing structures that prevent farmstead discharges (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.21 Vermont 09-18-12 Active
Complete Small Farm Production Area Assessment or Vermont AEM surveys for 108 farms in the Rock River, St Albans Bay, and Hungerford Brook watersheds by 2010, as well as at least 18 small farms in Rutland and Addison counties by 2010 (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.22 Vermont 10-25-12 Completed
Continue to manage an effective water-quality compliance and enforcement program. All complaints are investigated and the appropriate enforcement actions taken (640 SFO, 150 MFO, and 100 LFO visits since 2003) (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.23 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Assure that all new, modified, or expanded waste storage structures receiving technical or financial assistance from the VAAFM meet professional engineering standards. View Task Comments 4.1.24 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Vermont will prepare a draft CAFO permit for EPA review by December 31, 2010. View Task Comments 4.1.25 Vermont 07-27-12 Completed
Following EPA review of the draft CAFO permit, Vermont will finalize the permit and begin to implement CAFO requirements as appropriate and as expeditiously as feasible. View Task Comments 4.1.26 Vermont 09-17-12 Active
Cropland - Support and promote implementation of erosion control practices on annual cropland, emphasizing nutrient management and riparian buffers.
Provide financial and technical support to meet Vermont’s 2012 CREP goal of 600 cropland acres by 2012 in partnership with the State of Vermont and USFWS. View Task Comments 4.1.27 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Active
Provide additional outreach and financial incentives to implement alternative manure spreading methods on 1,250 acres in Vermont annually, for a total of 5,000 acres by 2014. View Task Comments 4.1.28 USDA-NRCS 05-22-14 Active
Provide additional outreach and financial incentives for farmers to implement conservation tillage on 125 acres annually in Vermont, for a total of 500 acres by 2014. View Task Comments 4.1.29 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Completed
Use the EQIP program to implement 35 acres of buffers annually in the New York portion of the Basin for a total of 175 acres by 2015. View Task Comments 4.1.30 USDA-NRCS 12-16-13 Active
Provide financial and technical support in partnership with New York, Vermont, and the USDA-NRCS to support the enrollment of 600 acres of riparian forested buffer through the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program by 2012. View Task Comments 4.1.31 USFWS 12-13-13 Completed
Provide financial and technical support for the improvement of 5 farm road stream crossings that are incompatible with aquatic habitat connectivity by 2012. View Task Comments 4.1.32 USFWS 12-13-13 Completed
Work during FFY2010 to evaluate adherence to NMPs in the basin. Evaluation of 2 NMPs per year is planned. View Task Comments 4.1.33 USEPA 03-13-14 Active
Maintain 30,000 acres in nutrient management plans. View Task Comments 4.1.34 New York Inactive
Ensure that all (28) CAFOs comply with erosion-control requirements specified in USDA-NRCS-NY Part 590 Conservation Practice Standard and ensure compliance with the individual field management practices identified in their CNMPs, including field-specific manure application rates, methods, and timing and implementation of riparian buffers in accordance with Land Grant University guidelines and all applicable USDA-NRCS conservation practice standards (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.35 New York Inactive
Provide manure applicator training on the appropriate rate, timing, amount, and method of manure application for all (8) large CAFOs by 2015 (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.36 New York 05-20-14 Active
Increase by 50 percent the number of acres in the farmland protection program by 2015 (currently, about 6000 acres of farmland in the New York portion of the Basin are protected, either by conservation easement or through acquisition of development rights). View Task Comments 4.1.37 New York 05-28-14 Active
Follow up on all water-quality-related complaints involving small (non-CAFO) farms. View Task Comments 4.1.38 New York 05-20-14 Active
Work to increase conservation funding (EQIP, CREP, WRP, etc.) to the South Lake watershed by 25 percent over 5 years. View Task Comments 4.1.39 New York Inactive
Evaluate 20 farms for compliance with their NMPs annually. View Task Comments 4.1.40 Québec 05-21-14 Active
Ensure compliance with manure-spreading dates, especially after October 1, as well as with distances according to regulation. View Task Comments 4.1.41 Québec 05-21-14 Active
Ensure compliance with the progressive schedule for disposal of animal manure, which requires that farms have 100 percent of cropland needed for spreading, as defined by their NMP, by 2010. View Task Comments 4.1.42 Québec 05-21-14 Active
Increase minimum tillage areas with more than 30 percent residue by 50 percent. View Task Comments 4.1.43 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Increase no tillage and rotation with fall cereals by 25 percent. View Task Comments 4.1.44 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Increase riparian buffers (minimum of 3m) in agriculture land in the target watershed by 50 percent. View Task Comments 4.1.45 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Promote perennial crops in targeted Critical Source Areas within the Missisquoi Basin. View Task Comments 4.1.46 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Increase cover-cropped acreage by 25 percent. View Task Comments 4.1.47 Québec 02-22-12 Active
Support the implementation of hydro-agricultural outfitting at the field level to control erosion and sediment transport in ZIPP and targeted subbasins. View Task Comments 4.1.48 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Monitor the flows, sediments, and nutrients following the Lisière Verte project by the Coopérative de solidarité du bassin versant de la baie Missisquoi. Monitor the water quality in the targeted subbasin (Ewing) following the implementation of 9 meters cultivable riparian buffers, the conversion of annual crops to perennial crops in flood-plains areas, and the installation of runoff control facilities (inlet drains by IRDA). View Task Comments 4.1.49 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Continue annual inspections on all (11) LFO farms in the Basin to assure that nutrient management plans are being followed to protect water quality and are in compliance with the farm’s individual permit (based on the number of farms available as of 2009). View Task Comments 4.1.50 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Review the nutrient management plans for each MFO inspection to assure they are being followed and are in compliance with the general permit. View Task Comments 4.1.51 Vermont 09-14-12 Active
Continue enforcement of the winter manure-spreading ban (December 15-April 1) to minimize the water-quality impacts associated with spreading manure on frozen or snow covered ground. View Task Comments 4.1.52 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Continue investigating all manure spreading or erosion-related complaints on farms and enforce as necessary. View Task Comments 4.1.53 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Continue enforcement of manure-spreading setbacks established in the AAPs, MFO, and LFO rules. View Task Comments 4.1.54 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Expand the number of cover-cropped acres enrolled in the state program from 5,000 in 2008 to 12,000 in 2012; the ultimate goal is to have cover crop on all annual cropland that can be planted by October 15. View Task Comments 4.1.55 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Enroll a total of 2,600 acres of crop, hay, and pasture land in CREP by 2012, including at least 600 acres of annual cropland in partnership with USDA-NRCS-VT and USFWS. View Task Comments 4.1.56 Vermont 10-23-12 Active
Establish the use of alternative manure-spreading methods (e.g., manure injection), with a goal of treating 5,000 total acres by 2012. View Task Comments 4.1.57 Vermont 07-27-12 Active
Use soil aeration techniques on 45,000 acres in the northern Lake Champlain Basin prior to manure applications by 2012. View Task Comments 4.1.58 Vermont 02-06-13 Active
Continue to work with partners to identify flow accumulation or critical source areas in agricultural fields within the Missisquoi Basin and educate farmers on the potential impacts and conservation practices that can be employed. View Task Comments 4.1.59 Vermont 09-18-12 Active
Pasture – Encourage and support grassland agriculture and proper pasture management.
Work with other federal partners to perform a riparian regulatory gap analysis in the Missisquoi Basin in FFY2012 and establish a timetable to analyze riparian regulatory gaps in other subbasins in subsequent years. View Task Comments 4.1.60 USEPA Inactive
Provide financial and technical support needed to meet Vermont’s goal of enrolling 200 acres of pasture annually into CREP. View Task Comments 4.1.61 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Active
Implement 2,500 acres of prescribed grazing systems annually in Vermont in conjunction with partners for a total of 10,000 acres by 2014. View Task Comments 4.1.62 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Active
Implement up to 150 acres of pasture management per year in New York by emphasizing the use of short-duration rotational grazing for priority conversions of continuously grazed pastures and cropland for a total of 750 acres by 2015. View Task Comments 4.1.63 USDA-NRCS 12-16-13 Active
Redesign and implement 4 stream crossings per year in New York for grazers to minimize livestock access to streams for a total of 20 by 2015. View Task Comments 4.1.64 USDA-NRCS 12-16-13 Active
Install 4 livestock-watering facilities each year in New York in an effort to prevent uncontrolled livestock access to streams for a total of 20 by 2015. View Task Comments 4.1.65 USDA-NRCS 12-16-13 Active
Provide financial and technical support to enroll 20 miles of riparian forest buffer each year. View Task Comments 4.1.66 USFWS 12-13-13 Active
Encourage limited or controlled livestock access to all tributaries in the Basin by promoting livestock exclusion practices, alternative water supplies, stabilized stream crossings, and conservation buffers through the AEM program. View Task Comments 4.1.67 New York 05-20-14 Active
Maintain the partnership with USDA-NRCS and federal cost share assistance to achieve 35 acres of stream buffer practices annually. View Task Comments 4.1.68 New York Inactive
Convert 5 continuous grazing systems to prescribed, rotational grazing systems by 2015. View Task Comments 4.1.69 New York Inactive
Follow up on all water-quality-related complaints involving small (non-CAFO) farms. View Task Comments 4.1.70 New York 05-20-14 Active
Continue to provide 90 percent cost share for use-exclusion fencing from rivers/streams in order to ensure compliance. View Task Comments 4.1.71 Québec 02-22-12 Completed
Support the implementation of specialized diagnostics, collective projects, and work in ZIPP that drain directly into Missisquoi Bay (especially Beaver Creek, East Swamp Ditch, MacFee, Black, Labonté, Tipping Desranleau). View Task Comments 4.1.72 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Assess the effectiveness of livestock exclusion regulatory and voluntary programs with partners to identify the scope of the issue and solutions to improve water-quality impacts by 2011. View Task Comments 4.1.73 Vermont 05-14-14 Active
Continue to investigate and enforce as necessary the livestock access to streams provision in the AAPs. View Task Comments 4.1.74 Vermont 02-06-13 Active
Continue to ensure that livestock do not have access to surface waters in production areas on MFOs and LFOs. View Task Comments 4.1.75 Vermont 09-18-12 Active
Continue to provide 80 percent cost share for use-exclusion fencing from rivers/streams where other voluntary incentive programs, such as CREP, are not feasible. View Task Comments 4.1.76 Vermont 10-25-12 Active
Enroll at least 200 acres of pasture or hayland in CREP annually with a minimum of 50,000 linear feet of fence installed each year between now and 2012. View Task Comments 4.1.77 Vermont 09-18-12 Completed

Expand 4.2) Reduce the nonpoint source phosphorus load that is being generated by runoff from developed lands in the Basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Create a Stormwater Subcommittee of the TAC to recommend improved management strategies for reducing phosphorus in developed watersheds by 2011. View Task Comments 4.2.1 LCBP 02-15-11 Active
Assess potential effectiveness of models established in other watersheds for increased stormwater ordinances by 2014. View Task Comments 4.2.2 LCBP 05-08-14 Active
Assess potential usefulness of local stormwater utilities for communities throughout the basin by 2014. View Task Comments 4.2.3 LCBP Inactive
Evaluate the relative importance of wash-off and altered hydrology in stormwater phosphorus loadings in support of a mass-balance study. View Task Comments 4.2.4 LCBP Inactive
Track the developed land phosphorus reductions achieved across the jurisdictions in support of an overall mass balance for phosphorus within the Basin by 2014. View Task Comments 4.2.5 LCBP Inactive
Work with Vermont and New York to ensure that P-loads associated with new development are minimized to the extent practicable by collaborating on new strategies, such as LID, retrofit strategies, and new stormwater manual elements that increase phosphorus reductions from stormwater controls. View Task Comments 4.2.6 USEPA 05-16-14 Active
Share lessons learned on phosphorus reductions with all partners in other parts of the country on an ongoing basis. View Task Comments 4.2.7 USEPA 11-14-11 Active
Provide technical assistance and regulatory oversight needed to manage stormwater discharges from construction sites and new development.
Inspect 20 percent of annual permitted construction activities in the Basin and take enforcement action as needed to achieve compliance. View Task Comments 4.2.8 New York Inactive
Report compliance rates based on results from inspections of annual permitted construction activities. View Task Comments 4.2.9 New York Inactive
Produce a guideline for controlling stormwater at new development sites by 2010. View Task Comments 4.2.10 Québec 02-23-12 Completed
Inspect 10 percent of all permitted construction and 5 percent of all operational stormwater sites annually in order to capture a representative sample of all permitted sites; document the number of sites inspected, percent of sites in substantial compliance when inspected, and the number of sites brought into compliance. View Task Comments 4.2.11 Vermont Inactive
Update Stormwater Management Manual by 2011 to further incorporate and encourage LID practices into the suite of technologies available to stormwater designers. View Task Comments 4.2.12 Vermont 05-14-14 Active
Support maintenance and upgrade of existing stormwater infrastructure.
Inspect 20 percent of permitted stormwater operating structures in the Champlain portion of the MS4 communities annually and take enforcement action as necessary to achieve compliance. Seek stable funding source for maintenance of stormwater infrastructure, including structural replacements, upgrades, and retrofits by 2015. View Task Comments 4.2.13 New York Inactive
Evaluate the feasibility of installing stormwater infrastructure to control flow and sediment in targeted subbasins (Pike River, Rock River, and North Missisquoi River). View Task Comments 4.2.14 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Evaluate the implementation of stormwater infrastructure to control flow and sediment on the new Highway 35 at the Section 3B. View Task Comments 4.2.15 Québec 09-13-13 Active
Inspect the stormwater infrastructure on permitted transportation project construction sites. View Task Comments 4.2.16 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Promote the maintenance of road ditch stabilization with the Centre de service de Foster du MTQ, MRC, and municipalities. View Task Comments 4.2.17 Québec 05-22-14 Active
Complete at least 15 stormwater treatment retrofits in the North Lake watershed by 2013, with more than half concentrated in St. Albans City or Town. View Task Comments 4.2.18 Vermont Inactive
Complete and publish results of stormwater infrastructure survey in St. Albans City and Town, Swanton, Enosburg, Highgate, and Sheldon by the end of 2010 and complete similar surveys for at least 5 additional towns in the basin annually through 2012. View Task Comments 4.2.19 Vermont Inactive
Minimize phosphorus inputs through source control and education.
Promote bioengineering for erosion control and shoreline stabilization via workshops, demonstrations, and technical assistance to municipalities and Lake Champlain shoreline property owners. View Task Comments 4.2.20 LCSG 08-26-14 Active
Provide technical assistance to applicants, permittees, and interest groups on best practices related to stormwater management, shoreline stabilization, riparian buffers, stream culvert installation, and similar activities in conjunction with local SWCDs. This effort will include preparation of informational/instructional materials as needed; co-sponsor annual stormwater trade shows with CWICNY. View Task Comments 4.2.21 New York 05-20-14 Active
Collaborate with CWICNY, NYSDOT, USFWS, and municipal DPWs on culvert assessment and replacement and road ditch/critical source area stabilization. View Task Comments 4.2.22 New York 09-14-12 Active
Continue oversight of the MS4 Stormwater Program and coordinate this effort with SWCDs. View Task Comments 4.2.23 New York Inactive
Promote nonpoint source pollution prevention in urban development projects. View Task Comments 4.2.24 Québec 05-27-14 Active
Develop educational materials for towns to use when reviewing building permit applications by 2012 and assist towns in developing questions related to obtaining stormwater permits (construction and operational) on all building and zoning permit applications. View Task Comments 4.2.25 Vermont Inactive
Create technical training and materials related to erosion prevention, sediment control, and post-construction stormwater management practices for projects that do not trigger state jurisdiction by 2012 and provide the training to appropriate municipal officials in 20 towns each year thereafter. View Task Comments 4.2.26 Vermont Inactive
Continue to coordinate the RSEP through the MS4 permit to facilitate municipal stormwater training and outreach activities. View Task Comments 4.2.27 Vermont Inactive
Continue to provide technical and financial assistance to at least 75 municipalities to implement best management practices and construction techniques for upgrading and maintaining rural roads. View Task Comments 4.2.28 Vermont 05-14-14 Active

Expand 4.3) Protect and restore forests, wetlands, floodplains, and stream corridors to maximize storage of phosphorus in the watershed.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Research potential phosphorus storage functions in wetlands in impaired drainage basins by 2015. View Task Comments 4.3.1 LCBP Inactive
Research current regulations for septic and stormwater management in all three jurisdictions to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing stormwater phosphorus load by 2015. View Task Comments 4.3.2 LCBP Inactive
Protect river corridors, wetlands, and undeveloped floodplains.
Continue to implement the WRDA Section 542 program in partnership with the LCBP and the approved General Management Plan. View Task Comments 4.3.3 USACE 04-02-14 Active
Follow up on all wetland, stream, and water body disturbance complaints and take enforcement action as necessary. View Task Comments 4.3.4 New York Inactive
Work with partners to improve the delivery of WRP, CRP, Partners for Fish and Wildlife, and other such programs. View Task Comments 4.3.5 New York Inactive
Work with local governments on NFIP regulation, compliance, and community assistance by visiting 15 communities and conducting 4 NFIP workshops for all New York local code enforcement officers by 2015. View Task Comments 4.3.6 New York Inactive
Conduct compliance inspections of 10 percent of the stream/wetland-related construction activities permitted in any given calendar year. View Task Comments 4.3.7 New York Inactive
Reduce construction-related impacts to wetlands, streams, and water bodies through careful administration of regulatory programs and by providing technical assistance to permit applicants. View Task Comments 4.3.8 New York 05-20-14 Active
Work with private landowners to develop and implement forest stewardship plans with a goal of enlisting 3000 acres per year on average. View Task Comments 4.3.9 New York Inactive
Promote hydro-agricultural outfitting at the watershed level to control sediment transport. View Task Comments 4.3.10 Québec 05-27-14 Active
Provide training and technical assistance to municipal inspectors in the contents of the Buffer, Shoreline and Floodplain Protection Policy. View Task Comments 4.3.11 Québec 03-18-13 Active
Complete FEH mapping for 75 communities; ensure that 10 communities per year adopt municipal FEH ordinances by 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.12 Vermont Inactive
Provide technical oversight to the FEMA map modernization process to provide 10 enrolled communities per year with updated maps or model ordinances design to surpass floodplain protection beyond the NFIP minimum standards. View Task Comments 4.3.13 Vermont Inactive
Develop and purchase river corridor easements for 10 reaches of river identified as key sediment attenuation areas in completed geomorphic-based river corridor plans. View Task Comments 4.3.14 Vermont 05-14-14 Active
Expand the Portable Skidder Bridge Initiative, fabricating and making 20 additional portable skidder bridges available to loggers for purchase, loan, or rental by 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.15 Vermont 05-14-14 Active
Restore wetlands and natural floodplain connections within the watershed.
Restore 500 acres of wetland annually for a total of 2,000 acres by 2014 through the WRP in partnership with the State of Vermont and USFWS. View Task Comments 4.3.16 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Active
Assess wetland restoration potential and provide technical and financial support for 500 acres of degraded wetlands each year between 2010 and 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.17 USFWS 12-13-13 Completed
Assess floodplain restoration potential on 50 acres and 2 miles of degraded floodplain each year between 2010 and 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.18 USFWS 12-13-13 Completed
Provide technical and financial support to restore floodplain connectivity of 20 acres and 1 mile of floodplain each year between now and 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.19 USFWS 12-13-13 Completed
Provide financial and technical support to establish 20,000 native trees and shrubs each year between 2010 and 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.20 USFWS 12-13-13 Completed
Use the Priority Waterbody List (a list of impaired waterways) to identify sediment-impacted streams resulting from stream/stream bank instability and set priorities for corrective action funding with a goal of completing 5 projects by 2015. View Task Comments 4.3.21 New York 09-14-12 Active
Increase collaboration with New York partners (River Associations, TU, TNC, CWICNY, NY Rivers, etc.) with a goal of improving the effectiveness of stream projects authorized under New York’s Protection of Water Law (ECL 15-05). View Task Comments 4.3.22 New York 05-20-14 Active
Work to enlist at least 2 landowners per year into USDA-NRCS's WRP. View Task Comments 4.3.23 New York Inactive
Provide financial and technical support to establish 10,000 native trees and shrubs each year along riparian buffers in the Basin. View Task Comments 4.3.24 Québec 03-18-13 Active
Complete 4 floodplain restoration projects annually through 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.25 Vermont Inactive
Reestablish buffer vegetation for all completed river corridor easement projects (10 reaches per year) and complete buffer replanting projects on 5 additional reaches per year as prioritized in geomorphic-based river corridor plans, through 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.26 Vermont Inactive
Complete 4 encroachment removal/retrofit projects per year (including structures such as berms and stream crossings) through 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.27 Vermont Inactive
Provide outreach and education needed to sign up at least 60 landowners in the Basin for USDA-NRCS’s WRP by 2012. View Task Comments 4.3.28 Vermont Inactive

Expand 4.4) Address phosphorus loads associated with inadequately treated sewage.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Assemble and summarize spatial and temporal patterns of wastewater treatment plants to assist the adaptive management process by compiling end-of-pipe data and other pertinent data as provided by the jurisdictions annually, beginning in 2011. View Task Comments 4.4.1 LCBP 02-15-11 Active
Ensure that WWTF permits are consistent with the requirements of the Clean Water Act and that necessary upgrades are completed expeditiously as part of ongoing review of Vermont and New York’s implementation of the Lake Champlain TMDL. View Task Comments 4.4.2 USEPA 05-20-14 Active
Oversee upgrades to the wastewater treatment plant in the Village of Ticonderoga, oversee construction of a new wastewater treatment plant in the hamlet of Essex, and oversee through consent decree major rehabilitation in the Village of Whitehall (completion date is 01/2014) and work to complete remaining point source upgrades in the TMDL (4) by 2012, including development of compliance schedules. View Task Comments 4.4.3 New York 11-15-11 Active
Continue SSO elimination and abatement efforts with municipalities in the Basin under New York’s SPDES Permit Compliance Program and ensure consistency with EPA guidance for dealing with SSOs, with a goal of eliminating 100 percent of these SSOs by 2015. View Task Comments 4.4.4 New York Inactive
Continue with CSO reduction efforts with a goal of implementing all SPDES permit schedule requirements pertaining to Long-Term Control Plans by 2020 and eliminating 50 percent of the existing (as of 5/2009) CSOs by 2020. View Task Comments 4.4.5 New York Inactive
Work with partners, principally CWICNY, USDA-NRCS, and the SWCDs, to secure cost share funds for 1 septic tank pump-out program annually sponsored by Lake associations. View Task Comments 4.4.6 New York 05-20-14 Active
Pursue the follow-up inspection program of the wastewater treatment systems for about 100 facilities located off networks in the Ewing and Morpions subbasins and the Sutton and North Missisquoi Rivers. Inspections are planned for 20 new facilities annually. View Task Comments 4.4.7 Québec 05-28-14 Active
Ensure the compliance of authorized establishments. View Task Comments 4.4.8 Québec 03-18-13 Active
Ensure compliance with regulations for municipal sewage disposal for individual septic systems (Q‑2, r 8). View Task Comments 4.4.9 Québec 02-23-12 Active
Finalize wastewater treatment plants for Notre-Dame-de-Stanbridge, Pointe Jameson (Venise-en-Québec), Frelighsburg, and Stanbridge East. View Task Comments 4.4.10 Québec 05-28-14 Active
Implement point-source upgrades at facilities that discharge directly into Missisquoi Bay and to tributaries upstream of the Bay to further reduce phosphorus loading by improving filtration systems and maintaining phosphorus discharge requirements. View Task Comments 4.4.11 Québec 05-28-14 Active
Complete implementation of remaining point-source upgrades specified in the TMDL at Waterbury, Proctor, and Troy/Jay by 2012. View Task Comments 4.4.12 Vermont 11-14-11 Active
Complete and publish results of illicit discharge detection efforts for urbanized villages in the North Lake, including Swanton, Enosburg Falls, Richford, Highgate Falls, Montgomery, and North Troy by 2010 and then assist the communities with follow-up plans, including necessary corrective measures. View Task Comments 4.4.13 Vermont Inactive
Ensure that each of the 60 facilities in the Basin has an approved sewage spill prevention plan for the treatment plant and collection system by 2012. View Task Comments 4.4.14 Vermont Inactive
Continue the CSO elimination and abatement program, which, to date, has resulted in eliminating 34 of the 55 outfalls in the Lake Champlain basin. View Task Comments 4.4.15 Vermont Inactive

Expand 4.5) Use education to empower the general public to reduce phosphorus contributions. (Additional actions that incorporate outreach for phosphorus reduction are listed in the Informing and Involving the Public Chapter.)

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Continue phosphorus-reduction outreach campaigns, such as “Don’t P on Your Lawn” and other stormwater reduction efforts, using social marketing techniques. View Task Comments 4.5.1 LCBP 02-18-11 Active
Continue to implement the annual Lake Champlain Farm Awards in New York, Québec, and Vermont to recognize exemplary management practices. View Task Comments 4.5.2 LCBP 02-18-11 Active
Provide watershed, lake, and water-quality education programs for K-12 youth, teachers, and adults by offering hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum, technical expertise, equipment, and human resources to at least 15 programs annually in the Basin. View Task Comments 4.5.4 LCSG 03-18-15 Active
Support adoption of low-input, no-phosphorus lawn care practices by commercial, institutional, and business property managers in impaired watersheds. View Task Comments 4.5.5 LCSG 08-28-14 Active
Provide education and technical support to municipalities and homeowners to increase use of rain gardens, rain barrels, and other stormwater reduction techniques. View Task Comments 4.5.6 LCSG 08-27-14 Active
Increase awareness and adoption of LID by municipalities through workshops, publications, and demonstration projects. View Task Comments 4.5.7 LCSG 08-27-14 Active
Support the “Don’t P on Your Lawn” campaign through education, outreach, demonstrations, and technical support for lawn-care providers, gardening-supply retailers, and municipalities. View Task Comments 4.5.8 LCBP, LCSG 08-26-14 Active
Meet with partner organizations involved in water-quality monitoring/improvement (e.g., NY CAC, CWICNY, Water Quality Coordinating Committees, LCSG, TU, and river associations) at least 3 times per year to align priorities, support projects, and leverage resources. View Task Comments 4.5.9 New York 09-14-12 Active
Continue to make up to $100,000 per year of EPF and other grant monies for phosphorus-reduction projects available to local municipalities. View Task Comments 4.5.10 New York 05-20-14 Active
Expand information, education, and diffusion activities concerning the impacts of agricultural and urban nonpoint source pollution, the protection of water bodies, and sustainable urban development with the watershed group. View Task Comments 4.5.11 Québec 03-19-13 Active
Continue to make up to $500,000 per year of Clean and Clear Ecosystem Restoration grants and other grant monies for phosphorus-reduction projects available to local municipalities and nonprofits. View Task Comments 4.5.12 Vermont 05-14-14 Active
Install stream-crossing signs in at least one subwatershed within the Basin annually. View Task Comments 4.5.13 Vermont Inactive

Expand 4.6) Develop and implement a framework for Critical Source Area analysis that will serve as a basis for targeting management actions in order to achieve the greatest phosphorus reductions and address Lake segments furthest from their water-quality targets.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Continue the IJC project, Identification of Critical Source Areas of Phosphorus Pollution in the Missisquoi Bay Watershed, through December 2011. View Task Comments 4.6.1 LCBP 01-17-12 Completed
Develop a process for applying results of the IJC project to other priority watersheds in the Basin by 2013. View Task Comments 4.6.2 LCBP 06-20-13 Active
Facilitate meetings among New York and Vermont partners to develop a phosphorus load reduction management strategy for the South Lake by 2011. View Task Comments 4.6.3 LCBP 11-15-11 Active
Continue to research internal nutrient dynamics in Missisquoi Bay to inform and develop a eutrophication model for the Bay. View Task Comments 4.6.4 LCBP 06-20-13 Active
Incorporate results from the IJC Critical Source Area project in setting priorities for federal financial and technical resources and assist in the extension of the analysis procedures to other watersheds. View Task Comments 4.6.5 USDA-NRCS 12-12-13 Active
Update the Missisquoi Area-Wide Plan in Vermont by 2011 and continue to implement recommendations from the plan. View Task Comments 4.6.6 USDA-NRCS 05-22-14 Active
Seek funding sources to support analysis of Critical Source Areas in the New York portion of the South Lake watershed, similar to the Missisquoi Bay initiative funded by the IJC. View Task Comments 4.6.7 New York Inactive
Work with the Warren, Washington, and Essex County SWCDs and County WQCCs to identify, prioritize, and remediate excess sources of phosphorus on private lands in the South Lake watershed at a rate of 1 per county annually in partnership with USDA-NRCS-NY. View Task Comments 4.6.8 New York Inactive
Ensure that local groups (SWCDs, WQCC’s, municipalities, and other NGOs) are aware of grant opportunities as they arise (state, federal, LCBP, etc). View Task Comments 4.6.9 New York 09-14-12 Active
Identify excess sources of phosphorus on DEC-managed state lands in the South Lake watershed and develop a plan for their remediation (Forest Preserve lands, boat launch sites, state day use/campground facilities, etc.). View Task Comments 4.6.10 New York Inactive
Work with NYS DOT as well as county and local DPWs to identify phosphorus-source areas within highway ROWs and develop plans for their remediation with the goal of assessing 1 subwatershed and undertaking 3 corrective actions per year. View Task Comments 4.6.11 New York 05-29-14 Active
Actively participate in the ongoing IJC project, Identification of Critical Source Areas of Phosphorus Pollution, in the Missisquoi Bay watershed. View Task Comments 4.6.12 Québec, Vermont 03-19-13 Completed
Advise and integrate management of soils and water (GRISE project) by IRDA and McGill University for agricultural consultants. Develop and validate a parcel map management tool based on the segmentation of digital ground models and digital imaging. View Task Comments 4.6.13 Québec 05-28-14 Completed
Incorporate results from the IJC project in setting priorities for state financial and technical resources and extend the analysis to include other watersheds. View Task Comments 4.6.14 Vermont 11-14-11 Active
Work with USDA-NRCS-VT and EPSCoR to pilot development of an “enhanced” hydrography dataset for the Rock River by the end of 2010. View Task Comments 4.6.15 Vermont Inactive
Implement a procedure for estimating contributions of stream banks to the total sediment load being delivered by Vermont tributaries to Missisquoi Bay by 2011. Extend the results of this project to tributaries throughout the Basin by 2014 in partnership with New York, Québec, LCBP, and USDA-NRCS-VT. View Task Comments 4.6.16 Vermont 11-09-11 Active

Expand 4.7) Develop a coordinated adaptive management decision plan for evaluating progress in reducing phosphorus inputs to Lake Champlain across the jurisdictions.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Develop an ecosystem indicators database to support the adaptive management process and the annual State of the Lake report using pressure-state-response modeling. View Task Comments 4.7.1 LCBP 06-21-13 Active
Relate subwatershed management practices to phosphorus TMDL load allocations and reductions through quantitative analysis using an adaptive management process for Lake Champlain tributaries based on current monitoring data by 2015. View Task Comments 4.7.2 LCBP Inactive
Continue the Adaptive Management Workgroup and bring nationally recognized experts to the region to promote a broad professional exchange of adaptive management theory and applications through annual workshops. View Task Comments 4.7.3 LCBP 09-10-14 Active
Develop an adaptive management framework that can be used to evaluate future implementation scenarios and the phosphorus reductions that may be achieved. View Task Comments 4.7.4 LCBP 09-10-14 Active
Evaluate nonpoint source loading management tools that have been successfully applied in other water-quality programs and prepare a report by 2011. View Task Comments 4.7.5 LCBP 10-15-12 Active
Facilitate the dynamic reporting of management actions by all jurisdictions on the LCBP website. View Task Comments 4.7.6 LCBP 10-12-12 Completed
Regions 1 and 2 will continue to encourage, cooperate with, and evaluate the Lake Champlain TMDL implementation by Vermont and New York on an ongoing basis. View Task Comments 4.7.7 USEPA 11-14-11 Active
Work with Vermont, New York, and other partners to develop and implement an adaptive management framework to ensure that TMDL implementation steps are tracked, and that these steps are making progress toward meeting water-quality goals. Part of this initiative could be accomplished by targeting resources (e.g., enforcement, funding, other management actions) in certain areas of the Basin where loading targets are furthest from being met. View Task Comments 4.7.8 USEPA 05-15-14 Active

Expand 4.8) Estimate how climate change is altering the delivery of phosphorus to Lake Champlain and how it necessitates changes in implementation strategies.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Create a Climate Change Subcommittee of the TAC to focus on climate change scenarios and investigate implementation strategies that can minimize the effect of changes on phosphorus loading by 2011. View Task Comments 4.8.1 LCBP 09-10-14 Active
Support efforts by NWS and NOAA to update the rainfall atlas for the northeastern states. View Task Comments 4.8.2 LCBP 07-02-13 Active
Synthesize the best available information on the likely impact of climate change on phosphorus loading by 2012. View Task Comments 4.8.3 LCBP Inactive
Recommend adjustments needed in management practices to effectively respond to climate change by 2012. View Task Comments 4.8.4 LCBP 12-13-13 Active
Assess the effect of climate change on surface water hydrology and sediments and nutrients export at the level of the Pike River Basin. View Task Comments 4.8.5 Québec 05-29-14 Completed
Develop appropriate strategies for coping with projected changes in precipitation and runoff in collaboration with other partners within the Basin. (USGS, Cornell University, UVM, NOAA, USACE, and others). View Task Comments 4.8.6 New York, Québec, USDA-NRCS, USEPA, Vermont 03-13-14 Active
Compare current 10-year, 25-year, and 100-year design storms to recent climate-change driven precipitation projections in order to better prepare for changing phosphorus loads to Lake Champlain due to rain events. View Task Comments 4.8.7 Vermont Inactive

Expand 4.9) Opportunities for Future Actions: Identify research and monitoring projects that can improve management programs and conduct when funding resources become available.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Research Programs
Investigate nutrient dynamics in Missisquoi Bay. View Task Comments 4.9.1 Inactive
Explore management tools that can be used to identify critical source areas and effective interventions. View Task Comments 4.9.2 Inactive
Develop and distribute a high-resolution electronic atlas pertinent to a dripping diagnostic, rural water development and soil and phosphorus losses (phosphorus export diagnostic tool, ODEP by IRDA in Québec). View Task Comments 4.9.3 Inactive
Characterize phosphorus mobility in surface runoff and in the tile drainage system. View Task Comments 4.9.4 Inactive
Evaluate the impact of internal phosphorus loading on water quality, as described in the TMDL. View Task Comments 4.9.5 Inactive
Management and Monitoring Programs
Develop management programs targeting reduction of dissolved phosphorus near the Lake to limit algae blooms. View Task Comments 4.9.6 Inactive
Update information on land use, agricultural practices, and extent of natural habitats in the Basin to assess their impact on nonpoint source loads. View Task Comments 4.9.7 Inactive
Monitor the flows, sediments, and nutrients following the Lisière Verte project by the Coopérative de solidarité du bassin versant de la baie Missisquoi. View Task Comments 4.9.8 Inactive
Monitor the water quality in the targeted subbasins in Québec (Castors, Granger, Pelletier, Petit Ruisseau, and Ewing) following the implementation of 9-meter cultivable riparian buffers, the conversion of annual crops to perennial crops in floodplains, and the installation of runoff control facilities (inlet drains by IRDA). View Task Comments 4.9.9 Inactive

Site Last Updated: March 18, 2015

© 2008–2017 Lake Champlain Basin Program. All rights reserved.
Lake Champlain Basin Program - 54 West Shore Road - Grand Isle, VT 05458
800.468.5227 (NY & VT) or 802.372.3213 - WWW.LCBP.ORG