Opportunities for Action: An Evolving Plan for the Future of the Lake Champlain Basin

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Managing Aquatic Invasive Plants and Animals

About This Chapter

The Goal

Prevent the introduction, limit the spread, and control the impact of non-native aquatic invasive species in order to preserve the integrity of the Lake Champlain ecosystem.


Aquatic invasive species arrivals to Lake Champlain, through 2010.

Aquatic invasive species (AIS) are non-native species that harm the environment, economy, or human health. AIS include aquatic plants, animals, and pathogens. Lake Champlain was home to 49 known non-native aquatic species in 2010, many of which are invasive. Once introduced into Lake Champlain, AIS have the potential to spread to other inland water bodies in the Basin. AIS that become established in the Basin can pose serious threats to indigenous fish, wildlife and native plant populations; impede recreational activities; significantly alter the ecosystem of the Lake; and damage the economy of the region.

AIS have entered the Lake Champlain Basin through a number of different pathways, most commonly through interconnected waterways, such as the Champlain and Chambly Canals and Richelieu River, or overland through human activities, such as boating and bait transport. Other pathways include accidental water garden releases, aquarium dumping, and illegal fish stocking. The interconnected waterways of Lake Champlain transcend the authority of any single state or jurisdiction, necessitating coordination among the different management agencies. AIS currently found in Lake Champlain include zebra mussels, Eurasian watermilfoil, water chestnut, and alewives. Asian clams and didymo are examples of recent AIS introductions in the Basin that are not yet known to occur in Lake Champlain. Recent research has indicated that sea lamprey are native to Lake Champlain; more information on sea lamprey may be found in the Fish, Wildlife, and Plants chapter.

Number of known non-native species in Lake Champlain and adjacent waters, as of 2009.

Lake Champlain is threatened by non-native aquatic species known to occur in connected waterways such as the St. Lawrence Seaway, which has more than 85, the Great Lakes with close to 190, and the Hudson River Basin with more than 90. AIS that exist in these waterways include the spiny waterflea, quagga mussel, round goby, and the fish disease viral hemorrhagic septicemia. Other threats in the region include hydrilla, snakehead, and Chinese mitten crab.

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Management Plans

The Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP) is involved in regional and national coordination to prevent the introduction and spread of AIS. The Lake Champlain Basin Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan was revised and approved by the National Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force in 2005. The LCBP and its partners belong to the Northeast ANS Panel, one of six regional panels of the ANS Task Force, which is co-chaired by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). New York also has an approved Adirondack Park Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. These management plans call for technical and financial assistance to local groups working in partnership with regional, state, provincial, and federal resource management agencies on invasive species management as well as strong public involvement. Objectives of these plans include strengthening coordination for plan implementation; increasing public education and outreach; enhancing detection, monitoring, and research; and developing, prioritizing, and implementing AIS management actions and rapid responses. Ongoing implementation of these plans aims to reduce and slow the introduction and spread of AIS to the Basin. These management plans are important companion documents to Opportunities for Action (OFA), as priority actions in all of these regional AIS management plans are closely aligned.

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Rapid Response

Divers take rapid response actions against Asian clam in Lake George.

The introduction of a new AIS or spread of existing AIS to a new location in the Lake Champlain Basin may warrant rapid response actions to remove the species before it becomes established and causes harm to the environment, economy, or human health. The LCBP Steering Committee approved the Lake Champlain Basin Rapid Response Action Plan for Aquatic Invasive Species in May 2009; it recommends the formation of a Rapid Response Task Force to quickly respond to and control, if possible, any new AIS infestations in the Lake Champlain Basin. The Plan identifies a lead agency for each jurisdiction, responsible for engaging and working with all appropriate federal, state, and local agencies to identify partner roles, as well as coordinate any permitting activities. The plan calls for sharing expertise, staff, and equipment to eradicate new AIS or prevent the spread of existing AIS to new locations, regardless of where it occurs in the basin. Members of the Rapid Response Task Force would respond to a new infestation to confirm species identification, delineate the extent of the infestation, and conduct a species risk assessment to determine what control actions may be technically, economically, and socially feasible. The plan recommends the use of the Incident Command System in the US section of the Lake – a standardized, on-scene, all-hazards incident management approach that is part of the US Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Incident Management System – in any rapid response control action that involves multiple stakeholders and jurisdictions within the Lake Champlain Basin.

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AIS Laws and Rules

AIS laws and policies have been developed to address multiple pathways of introduction. Vermont and New York implemented baitfish regulations in 2007 to prohibit the movement of baitfish from one body of water to another to prevent the spread and introduction of aquatic invasive baitfish and any diseases or pathogens they might carry. Anglers may purchase and transport certified bait to one body of water within a specified time for use only on that specified water body. Once there, baitfish may be stored for use, but may not be transported to another body of water. Any harvested live bait can be used only on the body of water from which it was harvested. Vermont joined Alaska in 2010 by passing a law that bans the use of felt-soled waders or boots, on which AIS such as didymo (or “rock snot”) and New Zealand Mud Snail might be transported, in all Vermont waters; this law takes effect on April 1, 2011. Other states such as Montana, Oregon, and Maryland are also considering felt soled wader bans. Additionally, as of July 1, 2010 it is illegal to transport any aquatic plants, zebra mussels, or quagga mussels overland on a boat or trailer in the state of Vermont; New York is considering a similar transport law. The development and implementation of rules and regulations that prevent the spread and introduction of AIS also help to inform the public about these pathways and support citizen behavioral changes.

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Spread Prevention

The first objective in AIS management is to prevent introductions. Once AIS enter the Basin and become established, however, preventing their spread to other bodies of water requires strong education and outreach campaigns as well as partnerships between local, state, provincial, and federal agencies and organizations for management.

Director of NYSCC briefs VT and NY congressional representatives on the Champlain Canal, October 2009.

The LCBP has worked in partnership with the New York State Canal Corporation (NYSCC) to address the threat of AIS spread through the Champlain Canal. Canals are the leading pathway of AIS introduction to Lake Champlain, and they may in turn serve as a route for AIS to move from Lake Champlain to the Hudson River Basin and St. Lawrence Seaway. LCBP partners are working together to support an AIS feasibility study for a barrier within the Champlain Canal.

LCBP Boat Launch Stewards share spread-prevention techniques.

The LCBP has continued to support the successful Lake Champlain Boat Launch Steward Program since its inception in 2007. Lake Champlain annually attracts users from around the United States and Canada who trailer vessels and bring equipment that may be carrying AIS from other areas. The Boat Launch Steward Program places stewards at high-use New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department (VTFWD) Lake Champlain boat launches to conduct courtesy boat inspections for AIS and gather information about which water bodies boat-launch users come from and if they take any measures to prevent the spread of AIS. Data from the 2009 field season indicated that more than 4 percent of boaters that launched or retrieved their boats in Lake Champlain had AIS on their boats, trailers, or recreational equipment. Public behavior change to check, clean, and dry all vessels, boats, and equipment can reduce the risk of AIS introductions and spread.

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AIS Management in the Basin

LCBP and partners have been working for decades to manage aquatic invasive fish and animals in the Basin. Management of AIS is complicated by limited knowledge concerning the presence and extent of many of these species within the Basin and the impact that introduced species have on indigenous species, habitats, and the food web. While measurable impacts of AIS to the environment and economy are hard to track, invasive species are a leading known cause of biodiversity loss, second only to habitat loss (Wilson 2006).

Adequate information based on surveys and monitoring programs is essential to forming effective management strategies for AIS. Evaluating technologies that exclude or eliminate these species and coordinated research and management efforts outside the Basin are also important to implementing the Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. The LCBP has an AIS Subcommittee comprised of technical experts from federal, state, and provincial agencies; research and academic institutions; environmental nonprofit organizations; and local river and watershed organizations that meet to discuss and share AIS management techniques, research, policy, and public outreach strategies.

In order to make the best possible management decisions, it is necessary to understand the effectiveness, cost, and secondary impacts of AIS control strategies. The implementation of a control strategy must incorporate research as well as pre- and post-management monitoring. All control strategies, long-term or experimental, should be continually reevaluated for their efficacy in achieving management goals.

A mechanical harvester removes water chestnuts.

The water chestnut partnership management program provides a useful example of how control strategies support management goals. Water chestnut displaces other aquatic plant species, is of little food value to wildlife, and forms dense vegetative mats that alter aquatic habitat and interfere with recreational activities. In 1998, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (VTDEC), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), NYSDEC, and the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) established a cooperative partnership to reduce the negative impacts and prevent the further spread of water chestnut in Lake Champlain and other Basin waters. Partners have been able to reduce the number of infested sites within the Lake by using a combination of mechanical harvesting and hand-pulling; in 2009, sixteen out of eighty-five sites were found to be free of water chestnut (Hunt and Marangelo 2010). Additionally, the water chestnut population in Red Rock Bay off Burlington, Vermont, was removed in 2009, which marked the first time that area was free of water chestnut since 1982.

The success of AIS programs, such as water chestnut management, is highly dependent on continued financial support and priority commitments from all partners involved. LCBP and partners are developing an integrated AIS management approach to be able to respond to new infestations and the spread of AIS, prevent the introduction and establishment of new species, and educate the public about preventing the spread of AIS. Effective AIS management must address AIS introduction pathways (such as canals) through partnerships, overland transport through boat launch steward programs, and the movement of bait through legislation. Managing AIS infestations once they become established is more costly than preventing them. Citizens can do their part by always checking, cleaning, draining, and drying their boats and equipment and never moving any plant or animal species between water bodies or releasing aquarium or other pets into the wild. LCBP and partners are committed to working together to address policy gaps, respond to new and spreading AIS, and raise public awareness in order to protect the species diversity and richness of the Lake Champlain Basin.

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Hunt, T. and P. Marangelo. 2010. 2009 Water Chestnut Management Program: Lake Champlain and Inland Vermont Waters. VT Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Waterbury, VT and The Nature Conservancy, West Haven, VT.

Wilson, E.O. 2006. The Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth. New York: WW Norton and Company Inc.

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Chapter Objectives

  • Prevent the introduction and reduce the spread of AIS that currently or potentially may damage the environment, economy, or human health in the Lake Champlain Basin.
  • Conduct early detection monitoring and rapid response management of AIS in the Basin and document the extent of infestations.
  • Increase public understanding of, involvement in, and behavior change related to the spread, prevention, and control of AIS through education and outreach programs.
  • Manage AIS using current and new technologies and evaluate the efficacy of these technologies
  • Support comprehensive invasive species spread-prevention policy and support local, regional, and national cooperation.

Associated Actions / Tasks

Click Expand Icon Next to each Action to see the associated Tasks

  • Completed Completed Task
  • Active Active Task
  • Inactive Inactive Task

Expand 7.1) Prevent the introduction of aquatic invasive species into the Lake Champlain Basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Prevent the introduction of aquatic invasive plants, animals, and pathogens via overland transport.
Support boat launch steward programs at high-use access sites on Lake Champlain and other inland lakes and rivers through funding and training. Expand boat launch steward programs by 50 percent by 2014 in the Lake Champlain Basin. View Task Comments 7.1.1 LCBP 10-21-14 Active
Evaluate surveyed boat launch user AIS spread-prevention behaviors annually and compare surveyed behaviors to results of previous years' surveys. Report annually to the Steering Committee. View Task Comments 7.1.2 LCBP, LCSG 10-21-14 Active
Provide a full-time wildlife inspector, on-call 24 hours, at the Champlain, New York, border crossing to interdict invasive and injurious species and conduct routine species identification training with Customs and Border Protection personnel. Provide annual reports. View Task Comments 7.1.3 USFWS 04-29-14 Active
Support the Lake Champlain boat launch steward program and its expansion by assisting in the training of boat launch stewards. View Task Comments 7.1.4 LCSG, New York, Vermont 09-06-12 Active
Maintain ANS signage at all state boat launches in the Basin. View Task Comments 7.1.5 New York 09-14-12 Active
Provide technical assistance and annual training to help groups implement and sustain access-area greeter programs. Provide financial assistance for these programs through the ANC Grant-in-Aid program when possible. View Task Comments 7.1.6 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Annually identify high-priority and high-traffic access areas around the Basin as candidates to be staffed by boat launch stewards/greeters. View Task Comments 7.1.7 Vermont 05-14-14 Active
Post signs at public access areas within the Basin warning users to stop the transport of AIS. Repost downed signs as needed. View Task Comments 7.1.8 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Prevent the introduction of aquatic invasive plants, animals, and pathogens via connected waterways.
Organize biannual meetings with the NYCC, hold public meetings, and engage appropriate partners to address AIS in the canals. Report number of stakeholders and partners in attendance. View Task Comments 7.1.9 LCBP, LCSG, New York 10-21-14 Active
Develop a bilingual AIS pamphlet for distribution to Champlain and Chambly Canal visitors by 2012. View Task Comments 7.1.10 LCBP Inactive
Develop and distribute a coordinated bilingual PSA about AIS in canal ways by 2012. View Task Comments 7.1.11 LCBP 09-17-12 Active
Develop an AIS spread-prevention sign for all canal locks in the Champlain and Chambly Canals by 2014. Each jurisdiction is responsible for posting their locks by 2014. View Task Comments 7.1.12 LCBP, New York, Québec Inactive
Provide staff support to the USACE and other partners to conduct a feasibility assessment of a barrier strategy for the Champlain Canal by 2015. View Task Comments 7.1.13 LCBP, New York 09-17-12 Active
Support the development of AIS exclusion technologies via technology transfer of systems/methods found to be useful in the Great Lakes or elsewhere. View Task Comments 7.1.14 LCSG Inactive
Conduct a feasibility assessment of spiny water flea and other AIS barrier strategies for the Glens Falls Feeder Canal by 2012. View Task Comments 7.1.15 USFWS 03-01-11 Completed
Prevent the introduction of aquatic invasive plants, animals, and pathogens via the pet and aquarium trade, aquaculture, bait industry, and horticultural nurseries.
Inspect aquarium retailers and horticultural nurseries selling live aquatic plants for prohibited species. View Task Comments 7.1.16 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Survey aquarium retailers for sales of crayfish and prohibited species (e.g., fish, amphibians, reptiles) by 2015. View Task Comments 7.1.17 Vermont Inactive
Identify opportunities to promote voluntary spread prevention including “green” certification, clean stock initiatives, and best management practices through collaborations with New York agencies and stakeholders and implement 3 such opportunities by 2015. View Task Comments 7.1.18 New York Inactive

Expand 7.2) Reduce the spread of aquatic invasive species within the Lake Champlain Basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Maintain water chestnut management and reduce the extent of dense water chestnut mats in Lake Champlain to a level manageable by surveillance and hand-pulling only by 2019. The 2009 cost estimate is $1.34 million per year through 2019.
Provide support for the mechanical and hand-harvesting efforts as funding is available and coordinate biannual water chestnut workgroup meetings with New York, Québec, and Vermont to discuss management and funding challenges. View Task Comments 7.2.1 LCBP 11-15-11 Active
Annually survey, remove, and quantify water chestnut in the Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge. Provide financial support for control activities on 20 acres of wetland habitat in the Basin each year. View Task Comments 7.2.2 USFWS 05-01-14 Active
Partner with TNC, Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge, LCBP, USFWS, USACE, and QCMDDEP to continue annual water chestnut eradication efforts in Lake Champlain. Monitor and manage for new water chestnut occurrences in the basin. View Task Comments 7.2.3 New York, Vermont 12-22-11 Active
Continue and report annually on the water chestnut eradication and monitoring program in River du Sud and other water courses where it might be found in Québec. View Task Comments 7.2.4 Québec 05-29-14 Active
Identify proper disposal options for alewife fish kills
Approve plan for handling large-scale alewife die-offs by 2011 View Task Comments 7.2.5 New York Inactive
Support technical control programs for other invasive plants, animals, and pathogens in the Lake Champlain Basin.
Report new management technologies annually to the LCBP Steering Committee. View Task Comments 7.2.6 LCBP 09-17-12 Active
Annually provide technical assistance to water body residents, municipalities, and others to help them design and implement water body-specific, long-range AIS control projects. View Task Comments 7.2.7 New York Inactive
Control invasive plant species on Wildlife Management Areas and continue to partner with the APIPP to manage invasive plants on other public and private lands throughout the basin. View Task Comments 7.2.8 New York Inactive
QCMDDEP will prepare an action plan for AIS that will threaten the Québec sector of Lake Champlain and will include an approved early detection system, by 2015. View Task Comments 7.2.9 Québec Inactive
Collaborate with partners on the evaluation of possibilities and technologies available for the control of AIS on an as-needed basis. View Task Comments 7.2.10 LCBP, Québec 02-24-11 Active
Develop a rapid response general permit for invasive species by 2012. View Task Comments 7.2.11 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Provide technical assistance to water body residents, municipalities, and others to help them design and implement water body-specific, long-range AIS control projects. Offer financial assistance (when available) through the ANC Grant-in-Aid program to support these projects. Report annually on implemented control projects. View Task Comments 7.2.12 Vermont 02-25-12 Active

Expand 7.3) Promote the early detection of and rapid response to aquatic invasive species entering the Lake Champlain Basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Promote the early detection of AIS.
Continue the Long-Term Biological Water Quality Monitoring Program on Lake Champlain and the sampling of targeted inland lakes in the Basin. LCBP will provide financial support and coordinate this program with other research efforts as part of an AIS early detection program. New York will monitor the Champlain Canal as part of the Long-Term Monitoring Program for early detection of invasive species. Report results annually. View Task Comments 7.3.1 LCBP, New York 09-14-12 Active
Provide an AIS detection curriculum for agency field staff with the help of partners (NYSDEC, VTDEC, LCSG, Québec) by 2012. View Task Comments 7.3.2 LCBP Inactive
Work with partners to conduct yearly ecological surveys of the Champlain and Chambly Canals to facilitate early identification of new invaders. Report results to the Steering Committee and publish in the State of the Lake Report. View Task Comments 7.3.3 LCBP 09-17-12 Active
Work with partners to identify AIS program and monitoring gaps in order to make recommendations to facilitate Basin-wide monitoring by 2014. View Task Comments 7.3.4 LCBP Inactive
Develop early detection networks for invasive aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial plants by 2015. View Task Comments 7.3.5 Québec Inactive
Examine samples collected in the annual fisheries surveys within the Lake Champlain Basin for AIS and report results annually. View Task Comments 7.3.6 Vermont Inactive
Survey infested water bodies to monitor expanding and declining populations of AIS and search other water bodies in an effort to detect invasions as early as possible. Submit annual reports on number of lakes surveyed and results. View Task Comments 7.3.7 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Maintain and continue to expand a VIPs Program, which trains volunteers in identification and search techniques for AIS. Number of volunteers trained each year will be available. View Task Comments 7.3.8 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Work with APIPP and other partners to establish and delineate ISPZs for the Basin by 2015. View Task Comments 7.3.9 New York Inactive
Identify new, expanding, and declining populations of AIS by continued, annual monitoring of New York waters and report annually on results. View Task Comments 7.3.10 New York 11-10-11 Active
Continue to support and expand the Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program in the Adirondacks. View Task Comments 7.3.11 New York 05-28-14 Active
Promote rapid response to AIS.
Implement the Lake Champlain Basin AIS Rapid Response Action Plan beginning in 2010. The LCBP, USEPA, NYSDEC, APA, VTANR, MDDEP, QCMRNF, DFO Canada, USFWS, and USDA-NRCS will adopt internal procedures and designate personnel to help implement the plan. View Task Comments 7.3.12 LCBP 09-18-12 Completed
Establish a Lake Champlain Basin AIS Rapid Response Task Force by 2011. Jurisdictions will designate representative. The LCB Rapid Response Task Force will conduct at least 2 species risk assessments a year and report these findings to the LCBP Steering Committee. View Task Comments 7.3.13 LCBP, New York, Québec, Vermont 09-14-12 Completed
Report new and emerging AIS threats to the Basin annually to the LCBP Steering Committee. View Task Comments 7.3.14 LCBP 09-18-12 Active

Expand 7.4) Support cooperation with the public and local, regional, and national organizations to reduce aquatic invasive species threats.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Coordinate regionally with the NEANS Panel and ANS Task Force by attending biannual meetings to prevent the introduction of AIS and conduct spread prevention. View Task Comments 7.4.1 LCBP 11-15-11 Active
Coordinate boat launch steward programs with VTDEC, VTFWD, APIPP, NYSDEC, Paul Smiths College, Lake George Association, QCMDDEP, and other partners. View Task Comments 7.4.2 LCBP 09-18-12 Active
Work with NEANS, NYSDEC, VTANR, Québec, LCSG, and NYSCC to develop similar stickers, pamphlets, and other educational materials in French and English with consistent AIS messaging by 2015. View Task Comments 7.4.3 LCBP, LCSG, New York, Québec, Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Support the Lake Champlain Basin Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. LCBP will update the plan every 5 years and support implementation. USFWS will provide annual funding, dependent on congressional allocations, to support implementation. View Task Comments 7.4.4 LCBP, USFWS 09-18-12 Active
Hold quarterly Aquatic Nuisance Species Subcommittee meetings and Spread Prevention Workgroup meetings, participate in the meetings of the New York State Invasive Species Council Advisory Committee and the Adirondack Invasive Species Program. Report annually to the Steering Committee. View Task Comments 7.4.5 LCBP 09-18-12 Active
Serve as lead of the NYS Invasive Species Council’s Four-tier Team (through mid-2010), continue to chair the Spread Prevention Workgroup of the LCBP Aquatic Nuisance Species subcommittee, and participate in the meetings of the NEANS Panel and Adirondack Invasive Species Program. View Task Comments 7.4.6 LCSG 09-06-12 Active
Annually facilitate the exchange of information through the Great Lakes Panel on ANS, the NEANS Panel, neighboring provinces, and local partners. Develop education and outreach material to prevent the introduction and spread of AIS. View Task Comments 7.4.7 Québec Inactive
Participate in the meetings of the Federation of Vermont Lakes and Ponds, NEANS Panel, NEAPMS, NECNALMS, NEAEB, and the Vermont Invasive Exotic Plant Committee. View Task Comments 7.4.8 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Participate in meetings and the work of regional and national coordinating bodies, including the National Invasive Species Advisory Committee, the Northeast Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel, and the Great lakes Aquatic Nuisance Species Panel, among others. View Task Comments 7.4.9 New York 05-20-14 Active
Ensure that effective coordination occurs among DEC divisions and other state agencies on all invasive species issues. View Task Comments 7.4.10 New York 09-14-12 Active

Expand 7.5) Support education and outreach efforts related to aquatic invasive species.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
LCBP and partners (LCSG, New York, Québec, Vermont) will initiate social marketing campaign(s) (bilingual where appropriate) for stakeholders such as anglers, fishing tournament participants, recreational boaters, marina owners, aquarium owners, and scuba divers to encourage the practice of AIS spread-prevention measures (proper procurement and disposal of bait fish, boat washing, live well drainage, self-inspections, etc.) by 2013. Two marketing campaigns for specific stakeholders will be developed annually. View Task Comments 7.5.1 LCBP Inactive
Work with LCSG and other partners to provide training programs in AIS spread-prevention to groups such as marina operators, aquarium owners, state park operators, fishing tournament operators, law enforcement officers, departments of transportation, and dive shop operators. View Task Comments 7.5.2 LCBP, LCSG, Vermont 09-06-12 Active
New York will add an AIS spread-prevention component to Boater Safety Course. LCBP will encourage and facilitate similar AIS spread-prevention training as part of boater safety courses in Vermont by 2015. Vermont will review and update existing AIS spread-prevention component of boater safety state course. View Task Comments 7.5.3 LCBP, New York, Vermont 05-20-14 Active
Provide ANS education/outreach for all tournaments run from state boat launches as part of the TRP permit process. Support education and outreach efforts at privately owned launches. View Task Comments 7.5.4 New York 05-20-14 Active
Develop and conduct education and general outreach activities with watershed organizations. View Task Comments 7.5.5 Québec 02-23-12 Active
Run large AIS spread-prevention ads in the Guide to the Marinas of Lake Champlain & the Champlain Canal map publication. View Task Comments 7.5.6 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Provide information about VHS and basic spread prevention as part of fishing tournament permitting. View Task Comments 7.5.7 Vermont Inactive
Develop and disseminate appropriate education and outreach materials to aquarium retailers and hobbyists. Educate internet retailers selling live aquatic plants about Quarantine Rule #3. View Task Comments 7.5.8 Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Update Baitfish of Vermont booklet to reflect new regulations regarding movement and use of baitfish and disseminate to retailers, fishing guides, and anglers. View Task Comments 7.5.9 Vermont Inactive

Expand 7.6) Support comprehensive policy development, implementation, and enforcement in New York, Québec, and Vermont to prevent the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species in the Lake Champlain Basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Draft model regulatory language on importation, transport, sale, possession, and use of established or potential AIS, including baitfish. Share with jurisdictional partners, who will propose, implement, and enforce such regulations as feasible. Jurisdictions will report annually on the enforcement of AIS laws. View Task Comments 7.6.1 LCBP, New York, Vermont 09-14-12 Active
Work with partners to develop necessary informational materials to support AIS transport laws in the basin and to inform the public through programs like the boat launch steward program, LCBP publications, and web resources. View Task Comments 7.6.2 LCBP 09-18-12 Active
Provide AIS identification training workshops for law enforcement officials every other year or as requested by New York, Québec, and Vermont or other partners. Vermont will train state police troopers and VTFWD wardens. View Task Comments 7.6.3 LCBP, LCSG, New York, Vermont Inactive
Support proposed state legislation that will regulate AIS transport by recreational boats and trailers with a goal of having a law in place by 2015. View Task Comments 7.6.4 New York 05-20-14 Active
Prevent the introduction/spread of AIS by enforcing existing regulations on fish transport, stocking, use, and possession. View Task Comments 7.6.5 New York 05-20-14 Active
Complete the 4-tier report (a regulatory system for preventing the importation and/or release of non-native species) by 2010. LCSG will lead the Fish and Aquatic Invertebrates Assessment component of this effort. View Task Comments 7.6.6 LCBP, LCSG, New York 09-07-12 Completed
Conduct species assessments to develop, by 2012, initial lists of prohibited, regulated, and unregulated species to apply to the 4-tier report. View Task Comments 7.6.7 New York 05-20-14 Active
Develop priority species lists through the Interdepartmental Committee on Exotic Invasive Species by 2012. View Task Comments 7.6.8 Québec Inactive
Develop and circulate best management practices for spread prevention targeted at field work and recreational activities by 2014, using Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans where appropriate. View Task Comments 7.6.9 New York, Québec, Vermont 02-25-12 Active

Expand 7.7) Conduct targeted research related to aquatic invasive species within and adjacent to the Basin.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Research the economic and ecological impacts of existing and potential AIS within the Basin.
Support research projects to assess the economic impacts of current and future AIS threats to the basin. View Task Comments 7.7.1 LCBP, New York Inactive
Support research projects to assess the effects of AIS on native species and the ecosystem. View Task Comments 7.7.2 LCBP, New York Inactive
Assist the SUNY Plattsburgh Lake Champlain Research Institute’s investigation of AIS impacts to aquatic invertebrate communities in Lake Champlain. View Task Comments 7.7.3 LCSG 09-06-12 Active
Inventory and document known populations of AIS within and adjacent to the Basin.
Work with partners to gather records of known populations of AIS throughout the Basin and place in a GIS database by 2014. Partnership will consider using iMap Invasives to host the database. View Task Comments 7.7.4 LCBP, LCSG, New York, Québec, Vermont 02-25-12 Active
Identify potential invaders and nearest established populations and develop and provide maps linked to a central database. This will allow the region to assess the ecological risk from each potential known invader by 2014. New York will share regional information from iMap Invasives database. Québec will obtain information from other Canadian provinces. LCSG will contribute through collaboration with the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network. Vermont will share available data. View Task Comments 7.7.5 LCBP, LCSG, New York, Québec, Vermont 12-10-11 Active
Document AIS management strategies occurring within the Basin.
Work with partners to create a central database to track and locate AIS management strategies within the Basin by 2014. View Task Comments 7.7.6 LCBP Inactive

Expand 7.8) Determine the impact of climate change on the spread and management of aquatic invasive species.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Create a list of high-priority AIS not yet present in the Basin and evaluate whether range expansions are likely by 2014. Reevaluate this list with partners every 5 years. View Task Comments 7.8.1 LCBP, LCSG Inactive
Reevaluate management procedures for AIS in light of predicted climate conditions by 2014. View Task Comments 7.8.2 LCBP, Québec 05-09-14 Active

Expand 7.9) Opportunities for Future Actions: Identify research and monitoring projects that can improve invasive species management programs and conduct these projects when funding resources become available.

Associated Tasks ID # Lead Partners Updated Status
Analyze the potential economic and ecological impacts of alewives on zooplankton, phytoplankton, and fish populations, particularly smelt and salmonids. View Task Comments 7.9.1 Inactive
Develop AIS indicators to track species management efforts over time. View Task Comments 7.9.2 Inactive
Conduct special demonstration projects to assess the effectiveness of various management and spread-prevention techniques as resources allow. View Task Comments 7.9.3 Inactive
Conduct annual evaluations of spread-prevention measures and rapid response actions to identify opportunities for improvement; revise response plans and associated documents as needed. View Task Comments 7.9.4 Inactive
Conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the Lake Champlain water chestnut-harvesting program. View Task Comments 7.9.5 Inactive
Survey fish communities in areas of water chestnut cover before and after harvesting to assess changes in fish community composition by 2014. View Task Comments 7.9.6 Inactive

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